Trichomoniasis (old name trichomoniasis, or simply “trishka”) occupies an honourable place among the other sexually transmitted diseases, as it is considered the most common not only among diseases transmitted through sexual contact, but among all the abnormalities of the genitourinary tract. In developed countries statistics assigns trichomoniasis from 2 to 10% of patients of the total population in developing countries — up to 40%.
Some really quite odious venereologists speak almost of across-infection with trichomoniasis. However, despite the breadth of his scope trichomoniasis is considered a relatively safe disease, and certainly one of the safest among other sexually transmitted diseases. They are sick mainly men, women for the most part are asymptomatic carriers of the disease (they are about 70-80% of infected men).
The etiology and pathogenesis of trichomoniasis
The causative agent of trichomoniasis is a bacteria called vaginal Trichomonas. This parasite (in other words, and not pick) adapted to life only in the genitourinary tract, so anywhere else (intestines, stomach, etc.) it is not detected. Trichomonas does not have “protective gear” and very sensitive to adverse environmental factors. Hence the basic way of infection — sexual. There are, of course, evidence and contact-household transmission of Trichomonas (e.g., using objects of common use — towels, washcloths), but venereologists questioned the possibility of such way of transmission. Localization of the lesion unoriginal for women — the vagina, the bladder and the urethra in men — urethra and prostate.
Trichomoniasis rarely occurs in monoinfection, it often occurs in Association with gonococcal infection, chlamydia, candidal vulvovaginitis (thrush). Trichomonas has an amazing ability to phagocytose (absorb) other bacteria, the gonococcus, and not digesting them completely. And when Trichomonas is destroyed, the trapped bacterium it comes out and may cause another infection.
Symptoms of trichomoniasis
As I said, most people have the disease are asymptomatic, without a pronounced clinical picture. If the disease manifests itself, there is it is usually not more than a week after infection. In women, trichomoniasis occurs with the following symptoms:
- foamy or purulent leucorrhoea (vaginal discharge) with a characteristic soap-fishy smell (which is so mixed “flavor”, only fishy smell is characteristic of chlamydia);
- burning and itching in the genital area;
- pain when urinating (partly due to adhesion of sponges of the urethra);
- pain during sexual contact.
The symptoms of trichomoniasis in men will fit in one line: the same burning and cramps when urinating, sometimes scanty discharge from the urethra, a feeling of heaviness in the perineum. With the defeat of the prostate gland for trichomoniasis typical symptoms of prostatitis.
Diagnosis of trichomoniasis
In colposcopy (inspection of the vagina) detected by the redness of its walls, but this, as you know, is not a basis for an accurate diagnosis. The main role in the diagnosis of trichomoniasis, as usual, belongs to laboratory methods of research of biological material obtained from the patient, namely, discharge from the urethra. For this purpose, use:
- microscopy of native (unpainted) drugs urethral discharge. To diagnose Trichomonas only in fresh smear active, because otherwise the bacteria lose flagella, and it is no different from representatives of the normal vaginal microflora. The sensitivity of this method is only 60%;
- culture method, the essence of which consists in sowing culture of bacteria in a special culture medium. Disadvantage — long term implementation of the study;
- enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, i.e. the identification of complexes of antigen/antibody with the help of special enzymes. However, in this case this method is not always effective, as a feature of trichomoniasis is sufficiently “blurred” immune response, which may not be allocated any of the antibodies;
- the method of polymerase chain reaction, which nobody knows, and if you call three letters “PCR”, and you guess what it is. This is the fastest and most sensitive method of diagnosis of trichomoniasis.
Treatment of trichomoniasis
Feature treat trichomoniasis, as, indeed, any sexually transmitted disease, is the treatment of both sexual partners, even if one of them Trichomonas and not detected. At the time of treatment, a “Spartan” lifestyle that eliminates any excesses (alcohol, sex). Treatment — drugs, which in complicated cases, prolonged Supplement local treatment and immunotherapy. Apply the following medications:
- metronidazole (trihopol, metrogyl, klion, rosamet, efloran). The most common drug for the treatment of trichomoniasis, what knows probably every student who has attained Mature age. This popularity and played the negative role in the fate of this wonderful drug. The fact that the uncontrolled use of reason and without formed a resistance to it on the part of the trichomonads, which in some cases makes his technique ineffective. Therefore, a more active use of other drugs, which will be discussed below;
- tinidazole (tiniba, fasigyn);
- Ornidazole (abrazar, gyro, dazolik, tiberal). Currently the most used drug after metronidazole;
- nimorazole (naxogin).
In chronic indolent trichomoniasis in addition to antibiotic therapy would be nice to have normalization of the vaginal microflora, in the first place — the restoration of “livestock” lactobacilli. For this purpose, use candles “Atsilakt” or solkotrichowaka vaccinated (the vaccine is based on abnormal strains of lactobacilli). The antibodies produced in response to solkotrichowak are against Trichomonas by antigenic cross-reaction.
After an apparent cure for 7-10 days after the end of active treatment should be re-tested for the presence of Trichomonas.
Itoga article will give final advice: in the case of trichomoniasis should be no self-medication, there is a risk of nedalekie, to drive an infection deeper into to such an extent that it will be very hard. Therefore, when the first symptoms you or your partner should consult immediately to the doctor.