Pregnancy is a mysterious process, especially in the beginning, when a very impatient woman and want to know about the attack even before the delay of menstruation. The first signs of early pregnancy can be confused with symptoms of premenstrual syndrome, but to confirm the conception will help the laboratory and instrumental methods of research.
Why is it important to establish the presence of a long-awaited pregnancy as soon as possible? To revise your lifestyle and diet, if this is not done in advance, to eliminate possible hazards and to prepare to become a mother.
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The process of conception: how does
Conceiving a number of processes following fertilization, resulting in the female body is born and continues to evolve a new organism, that is, pregnancy. The time of pregnancy is preceded by several factors:
- Sexual intercourse between a man and a woman (without protective equipment)
After the sexual contact the male reproductive cells (sperm) to penetrate into the uterine cavity, where they continue the way to the uterine tubes. Fertilization occurs in the fallopian tube (one or both), where the sperm must meet the egg. For successful Dating female sex cells and sperm needs to be fully ovulation. During ovulation the ovarian follicle ruptures the main, from which it follows physiologically normal egg, ready for fertilization. Her path lies in the direction of the fallopian tube. The collision hundreds of millions of sperm with the ovum in the cavity of the pipe, merges with it only one. The fertilized egg is called a zygote, which continues to move toward the uterus, at the same time familiar, so that there are more and more new cells of the future embryo.
This process is not yet a pregnancy, as the fertilized ovum reaching the uterus, to die, or, on the contrary, once in the uterus and before implanting, for any reason, is expelled from prodovolstvia along with menstrual secretions. This phenomenon is called spontaneous termination of pregnancy biochemical.
How conception occurs
As soon as the fertilized egg (blastocyst) enters the uterus, it began to penetrate in the thickness of the endometrium to implant. At the same time, the endometrium under the influence of progesterone continues to thicken and envelops the blastocyst around the entire circumference. Between the future embryo and the endometrium is formed by the chemical and physical correlation, the blastocyst trophoblast starts to synthesize human chorionic gonadotropin, which causes the corpus luteum of the ovary to continue to secrete progesterone, necessary for the further prolongation of pregnancy. With the result that menstruation does not occur, and we can talk about in pregnancy.
The period of time since sexual intercourse before implantation takes 7 to 12 days, so to talk about the first signs of early pregnancy 1 week after intercourse prematurely.
Diagnosis of early pregnancy to Diagnose pregnancy in the early period is difficult, because first symptoms that a woman and a doctor can be regarded as a pregnancy is possible in various pathologies. It is not excluded disorders such as premenstrual syndrome, a disorder of the endocrine organs, mental disorders, or overdose of certain drugs.
But if a happy moment has occurred, the first signs of pregnancy that confirm its presence, are laboratory and instrumental investigations. Early signs of pregnancy due to hormonal changes (production of HCG and progesterone).
Of laboratory methods for confirming pregnancy, are used determination of HCG in urine and serum. Determination of the level of HCG in blood can be carried out within 14 – 21 days after intercourse, when conception already has occurred, and the trophoblast of the embryo begin to synthesize HCG. The increased level of the hormone in the blood is determined in a special laboratory.
Pregnancy test these tests are an alternative to laboratory determination of HCG level and carried out at home. The test is recommended no earlier than 4 – 5 weeks after intercourse after menstruation. But it is possible to learn about pregnancy and early, even before the anticipated monthly, provided long (35 days or more) of the menstrual cycle. The test is based on detecting HCG in the urine.
The rules of the test:
- to conduct the test with the morning urine (the morning urine is concentrated and, therefore, the content of HCG in it above);
- not to increase the consumption of liquids, if the test must be done during the day (urine is diluted, and the concentration of the hormone is reduced);
- before performing the test, carefully read the manual and act according to it;
- not to use tests with expired shelf life.
- A false positive result when testing for pregnancy is possible in the following cases:
- 1 – 1.5 months ago was an abortion, miscarriage or childbirth (HCG is not immediately excreted from the body);
- expired shelf life;
- treatment of HCG-containing drugs (pregna, horagon);
- trophoblastic disease (molar pregnancy, choriocarcinoma).
Possible false-negative result if:
- the test is conducted too early (fertilization has occurred and implantation has not);
- the threat of termination of pregnancy (in the blood decreases the level of HCG);
- violation of the user conducting the test.
- before you run the test drink a lot of fluids;
- renal disease;
In any case, after a negative result it is recommended to repeat the procedure again.
The definition of pregnancy by early pregnancy ultrasound Conclusion after conducting ultrasound – another sign of pregnancy early period. However, too early ultrasound can be 100% guaranteed, as future embryo, until it has reached a certain size, your doctor may not notice. When you run this instrumental study in addition to confirm the pregnancy and reveal the following characteristics:
- the location of the ovum (in the womb or in the tube, ovary, etc.);
- the determination of the viability of the embryo (heartbeat);
- the presence of the embryo in the ovum (identification of anembryonic).
First signs of pregnancy to delay menstruation
When the first signs of pregnancy? As already indicated, is not earlier than 7 days after sexual contact.
Suspect pregnancy even before the delay of menstruation allow the following features:
The retraction of the implant
This characteristic is determined according to the schedule of basal temperature, which is measured in the rectum. To identify this symptom can only that woman who carefully and for a long time (at least 3 months) is a graph of the temperature curve.
Before ovulation occurs a decrease in temperature by 0.2 – 0.4 degrees, but since the release of the egg from the follicle temperature rises sharply and is above 37 degrees. At this level it stays about 12 – 14 days before menstruation begins to decline. Before the introduction of the egg into the endometrium to develop progesterone decreases slightly (it’s coming to the end of the menstrual cycle), as the body is still not aware of the incident fertilization. But as soon as implantation has occurred and establish the connection between the fertilized egg and maternal body, the trophoblast begins to produce HCG, due to which the body is rebuilt on a program to maintain pregnancy. That is, the corpus luteum continues to produce progesterone, which supports further growth and development of the embryo, and, consequently, increases the basal temperature.
Later, after a delay of menstruation, basal temperature exceeds 37 degrees and indirectly confirms the pregnancy.
The process of embedding the blastocyst into the thick lining of the uterus can (but not necessarily) be accompanied by a slight bloody discharge. Of bleeding is caused by destruction of the walls of the blood vessels of the endometrium. Do not expect a clear and too visible emissions. Perhaps the emergence of sukrovichnye or pinkish discharge in the form of a couple of drops on your underwear or toilet paper. Implantation bleeding is expected in the period 7 to 12 days from the date of sexual intercourse. If the suspect discharge was not – is not considered a pathology, as well as not confirm or deny a possible pregnancy.
Sensations in the lower abdomen
After implantation modified the blood supply of the genital organs, particularly the uterus. In the pelvic organs, particularly the uterus, increases blood flow, improves blood circulation and provides the embryo with nutrients and oxygen. So many women one of the first signs of pregnancy before the delay is a feeling of fullness in the lower abdomen. It is also possible to light tingling or even stretching that is not pathology (after all, the uterus begins to your increased growth).
For the same reason (increased blood flow in the pelvis) can appear or worsen hemorrhoids or tread veins on the legs (first sign of varicose veins). Undoubtedly, hemorrhoids and varicose veins are inherent in most of the second half of pregnancy, when the uterus already has a considerable size and compresses the inferior Vena cava, but multiparous these phenomena can appear at a very early time, before the delays.
Unstable emotional state
Before the onset of the expected menstruation the majority of women are unaware of them originated in the new life, become scattered and forgetful, or, conversely, overly irritable and aggressive. Unexpected tears suddenly give way to laughter and Vice versa. The reason for that is progesterone, which is produced to maintain pregnancy. But the lability of the psyche is quite possible, and with premenstrual syndrome, therefore, to suspect pregnancy based on a given characteristic can only those women who have PMS phenomena that were previously unavailable.
At very small time the woman can feel the signs of a cold: a slight indisposition, fatigue, headache. Perhaps a slight increase in body temperature, which again, due to the effect of progesterone on thermoregulation center. Once the embryo is anchored in the uterine wall and began to actively “cooperate” with my mother’s body, there is a decrease of immunity in the mother’s body, which prevents the rejection of the ovum as a foreign body.
Sensation in the chest
This symptom also can be attributed to the effects of PMS. From the moment of conception dramatically change the feeling in the breast. That is, before the woman felt no chest at all, and now the slightest touch to the chest hurt. It is also noted swelling and swelling of the breast.
Lowering blood pressure is noted from the first days of pregnancy. Under the influence of progesterone decreases the tone of smooth muscles, including the muscle layer of the vascular wall, leading to vascular relaxation and increased their diameter.
Urination from the first days of pregnancy quickens, but remains painless. This characteristic is due to the action of progesterone, increased hyperemia of the pelvic organs, including the bladder and kidneys, which increases renal filtration and urine production. Frequent urination persists up to the birth (in later stages frequent visits to the toilet also provoke and pressure of the pregnant uterus on the bladder).
Signs of early toxicity
Nausea, distortion of taste and smell, intolerance to different smells, salivation – all these phenomena belong to the early toxicosis, although it is possible for a number of other diseases (poisoning, pathology of the digestive tract, infection). Symptoms of early toxicity not so often observed before menstruation, and even after establishing the fact of pregnancy, there are not all women.
The delayed menstruation is pregnancy?
Delay of menstruation is not considered a reliable sign of pregnancy, especially in women, the menstrual cycle which was marked by irregularity. Before happy or in panic to run to the doctor, you should wait at least 5 – 7 days (counting from the first day and not the expected onset of menstruation). Then take a pregnancy test, considering all the rules. At negative result it is recommended to repeat the test after 3, minimum of 1 day.
In addition to a positive test there are other signs of pregnancy:
- early toxicity was the result of or manifested;
- breast tenderness, her engorgement and swelling;
- bleed venous pattern on the breast;
- skin problems (acne, even if it was not there before);
- enhancing vaginal secretions, they become creamy and milky;
- stiffness in the lumbar region and/or in the abdomen;
- constipation, followed by diarrhea (effect of progesterone);
- drowsiness by day, insomnia at night;
- mood swings;
- possible fainting (as a sign of arterial hypotension);
- increased appetite or complete lack of it (in case of toxicity);
- the tendency to edema (swelling of the face after legs, slight swelling of hands and feet);
- darkening of the white line of the abdomen and the areola, the areola;
- the basal temperature is consistently elevated (above, 37);
- headaches and migraines;
- change in libido (increase or decrease).
To dispel doubt, you should visit a doctor. During a pelvic exam (even in the early stages of pregnancy) the doctor identifies the following characteristics, indirectly confirming “interesting position”:
- darkening of the skin, until dark brown, the external genitalia;
- softening of the cervix, changing its color from pale pink to cyanotic (bluish);
- softening of the uterus, there may be some increase in the early stages, and later well-palpable enlarged uterus according to the delay times (8 weeks – female fist 10 weeks – male fist and so on).
To establish a definitive diagnosis a gynecologist to designate the passage of ultrasound (preferably transvaginal probe), and in contentious cases, recommend to donate blood for HCG.