The widespread use of blood chemistry in modern diagnosis requires at least some basic knowledge necessary for the patient to read the result, handed him a laboratory diagnostic center. Yes, with this piece of paper you will still go to the doctor who sent you for analysis, but sometimes I want to satisfy your curiosity and to decipher the result of biochemical analysis of blood, do not delay it indefinitely.
This analysis is not limited to a few indicators: this includes a spectrum of different evaluation criteria. In this article you will read about the most important and commonly used ones.
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Biochemical analysis of craveto one of the most common indicators. The normal blood protein for an adult is considered to be 65-85 grams/liter (g/l).
More likely to be diagnosed lowering the protein level (hypoproteinemia) than the increase (hyperproteinemia). The protein concentration is reduced at insufficient consumption of it with food, inflammation, chronic blood loss, increased degradation or excretion of protein in the urine, disorders of the processes of absorption, poisoning, febrile States. Hypoproteinemia is typical for the following diseases:
- inflammatory processes in the gastrointestinal tract (enterocolitis, pancreatitis);
- the post-operative condition;
- renal (glomerulonephritis), and liver (hepatitis, cirrhosis, malignant tumors) pathology;
- endocrine pathology (diabetes, thyrotoxicosis);
Hyperproteinemia happens very rarely. This increases the content is not normal and the pathological proteins. It occurs in systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple myeloma.
A blood protein seems to in the morning on an empty stomach (last meal should be no later than 8 hours before the test).
Above, we considered indicators such as total protein. It consists of two fractions: albumins and globulins. Albumins are evenly distributed in the bloodstream and interstitial fluid. These proteins are able to tolerate hormones, drugs and metal ions.
Normal concentration of albumin is 40 – 50 g/l. Exceeding this level occurs when:
- dehydration (diarrhea, vomiting, excessive sweating);
- multiple burns;
- abuse of vitamin A.
The decrease in albumin may occur with:
- hepatitis, toxic liver cirrhosis;
- bleeding, injuries, burns;
- increased permeability of blood vessels;
- pathologies of the gastrointestinal tract, including malabsorption (malabsorption syndrome);
- chronic heart failure;
- pregnancy and breast-feeding;
- the reception of hormonal contraceptive tablets;
The blood gives up in the morning on an empty stomach. For 8 – 12 hours before the test do not eat and load physically.
Among alpha1-globulins are of the greatest interest 2 fractions: alpha1-antitrypsin and alpha1-acid glycoprotein.
High content of alpha-1-antitrypsin indicates the presence of inflammation, emphysema, or (attention!) malignant neoplasms. Normally, the content of this globulin should not exceed 2 – 5 g/L. In the body, it performs a regulatory function in blood plasma (responsible for the activity of enzymes — trypsin, renin, thrombin, plasmin).
Diagnostic value of alpha1-acid glycoprotein is dynamic control of the inflammatory process and the formation and further development of a malignant tumor (increased suggests that a relapse). The norm for alpha1-acid glycoprotein is considered to be the concentration of 0.55 – 1.4 g/L.
It makes sense to talk about the three fractions of globulins that have the greatest diagnostic value.
ALPHA2-macro globulins are part of the immune system. They perform a very important function — they block the growth of malignant tumors. The normal concentration of alpha1-macro globulins in the blood of an adult is 1.5 – 4.2 g/l Decrease in this level may indicate the presence of acute inflammation, polyarthritis, rheumatism, cancer. The increase of liver cirrhosis, endocrine abnormalities (diabetes mellitus, myxedema).
Haptoglobin in the blood should be of 0.8 – 2.7 g/L. If less, possible hemolytic anemia, more of an acute inflammatory process. The main function of haptoglobin — hemoglobin transport to the place of his final destruction with the formation of bilirubin.
Ceruloplasmin oxidizes iron to the trivalent and is a carrier of copper. The norm of detention for him — 0,15 – 0,6 g/l. the Increase in ceruloplasmin may be a sign of acute inflammation or pregnancy. Decrease congenital disorders of copper metabolism (Wilson’s disease).
In this group evaluate the content of the two protein fractions: transferrin and hemopexin. The main function of transferrin is to transport iron. In relation to transferrin reveal not its concentration, and the saturation of the iron. Increase the saturation indicates the intensification of the process of disintegration of hemoglobin, which may occur in hemolytic anemia, decrease of possible iron deficiency anemia.
Hemopexin also has an affinity for hemoglobin. The hemopexin contents below 0.5 g/l of says about diseases of the liver and the kidneys, above 1.2 grams/liter — about inflammation.
This group includes immunoglobulins.e. what we know as antibodies, secreted by immune cells for destruction of pathogens. They should be in the normal 8 – 14 g/l. If more — means, immunity activated by bacterial or viral infection. Lower concentration of immunoglobulins may indicate as congenital abnormalities and chronic inflammation, Oncology, abuse of glucocorticoids for allergies.
Blood sampling for biochemical analysese from the school we know that glucose is the main energy source at the cellular level. But the fact that glucose is also a antitoxin, know not all. Yes, this property of glucose is widely used in hospitals for different kind of poisoning. Now remember these numbers: 3,5 – 5,5 millimole/liter (mmol/l): this is the normal glucose level in blood.
But do not panic when the concentration of glucose to 6 mmol/l and above: this is not necessarily diabetes mellitus. Increase of glucose — hyperglycemia — may be functional, for example, after a meal, sweet drinks, or after strong emotions.
In other situations, hyperglycemia can be a precursor to (or indicate) a number of pathologies, among which are very serious:
- neuroendocrine disorders (polycystic ovary syndrome, illness Itsenko-Kushinga, obesity, PMS);
- diabetes mellitus;
- pathology of the pituitary gland (acromegaly, dwarfism);
- pathology of the liver (infectious hepatitis, cirrhosis);
- pheochromocytoma (tumor of the adrenal glands).
Once there is hyperglycemia, it is reasonable to assume the existence of the opposite phenomenon, that is, hypoglycemia. She, like hyperglycemia, can be physiological (unbalanced diet, menstruation, fatigue), that should not cause much concern: it is fixable. Quite different is the case with pathological hypoglycemia. It develops when:
- “overdose” of insulin (enough to remember a few deaths among athletes bodybuilders using insulin for anabolic purposes);
- failure functioning of the liver, kidneys, heart;
- the blood poisoning;
- physiological or hormonal (lack of glucagon, cortisol, adrenaline) depletion;
- hereditary anomalies.
Blood glucose is taken from vein and finger. Obligatory condition of blood glucose is a complete rejection of food, starting from the evening. In the morning — if only for a drink of water (not even tea). To eliminate the physical and emotional stress.
Bilirubin is a breakdown product of hemoglobin, especially its second part — heme. The result of such a decay is called indirect bilirubin or free. This bilirubin is very toxic to the body. Later in the liver bilirubin associated with glucuronic acid (direct bilirubin or bound), enters the intestine, breaks down into urobilinogen and stercobilinogen and excreted in the feces. Ie the indirect bilirubin is “fresh”, newly formed, direct — neutralized and prepared for elimination from the body. The content of total bilirubin should not go beyond the limits of 8,5 – 20,5 mmol/l, direct — 0,86 – 5,1 mmol/l, indirect — 4,5 – 17,1 mmol/L. the Ratio of direct to indirect bilirubin should be 1 to 3.
If you exceed the level of bilirubin, the skin, the iris of the eyes and mucous membranes turn yellow. Hence the name of bilirubinemia — jaundice. Jaundice may develop due to:
- liver pathology (hepatitis, cirrhosis, poisoning with salts of heavy metals, alcohol), malignant tumors;
- hemolytic anemia;
- cholecystitis (obstruction of the bile duct stone);
- sometimes during pregnancy.
There is still such a thing as newborn jaundice, caused by massive collapse of the “extra” red blood cells (there is nothing dangerous there), prematurity or genetic disease called Gilbert’s disease.
By the way, high bilirubin may be associated with taking certain groups of medicines: antibiotics, oral contraceptives, indomethacin.
Low bilirubin occurs rarely, usually in patients receiving theophylline, barbiturates or vitamin C.
Urea is a result of the decomposition of protein compounds. If a person is healthy, the urea content in his blood is in the range of 2.8 – 8.3 mmol/L. a Condition in which “bracket” the urea content is above 8.3 mmol/l is called uremia. It is not always indicates that the patient is sick. For example, the uremia can occur when excessive protein in the diet (athletes strength sports), dehydration. In other cases, uremia means the presence of any disease:
- kidney problems (acute and chronic form of kidney failure, pyelonephritis, glomerulonephritis);
- heart problems (heart failure, heart attack);
- liver problems (cirrhosis, viral or toxic hepatitis);
- not the flow of urine in the bladder (anuria). For example, when compression of the urinary tract tumor or the presence of stone in the ureter;
- diabetes mellitus;
- inflammation of the peritoneum — peritonitis;
- localized bleeding in the gastrointestinal tract;
- intoxication with phenol, chloroform, salts of mercury;
High level of urea in the blood often indicates kidney disease. When the content of urea in blood up to 16 mmol/l suggest an average degree of kidney failure, from 16 to 34 mmol/l — severe renal insufficiency, above this line — serious kidney disease with a probable fatal outcome.
The decrease in urea is very rare. The reason for this may serve as a physical work “flat out”, causing enhanced protein breakdown, pregnancy and lactation (during this period, organisms are particularly interested in protein) or a small share of protein in daily diet. In all these States there is nothing extraordinary, “fast” is not necessary to call. Another thing — an abnormal decrease in the urea that occurs in celiac disease (congenital disorder of cleavage cereal proteins), in the later stages of cirrhosis, in cases of poisoning by arsenic, phosphorus, or heavy metal salts.
Creatinine — “slag” remaining in the muscle after breakdown of amino acids. His normal content — 44-100 mmol/l, athletes may be slightly higher.
Increased creatinine may be indicative of kidney conditions (peelo and glomerulonephritis, nephrosis, or nephrosclerosis), muscular system (compression, trauma), thyroid gland (thyrotoxicosis), taking ibuprofen, tetracycline, Cefazolin, sulfonamides, vitamin C.
And finally — a little about the final product of metabolism of purine bases, which is the uric acid (the product, not the base). The breakdown of purines occurs in the liver and excreted as uric acid by the kidneys. Normal uric acid levels in men: from 210 to 430 µmol/l, and in women from 150 to 350 µmol/L.
First — about the physiological reasons for increase in uric acid:
- physical labor;
- a diet rich in purines (legumes, meat, chocolate, red wine, seafood, coffee);
- the toxemia of pregnancy.
If we talk about pathological increase of uric acid, it is first and most characteristic symptom of gout. In this disease the news is only part of the uric acid. The rest is deposited in the form of crystals in the joints (primarily), kidneys, skin, eyes, heart, intestines. A major role in the development of gout plays a factor with burdened heredity, and improper diet, which involves consumption of a significant amount of foods containing purines.
There is hyperuricemia (increased uric acid) and blood diseases (leukemia, vitamin B12 deficiency anemia), hepatitis, diabetes, skin diseases (psoriasis, eczema), tuberculosis, pneumonia.