At the mention of the phrase “venereal disease” primarily from memory consciousness emerges syphilis: here is so strong associative connections, and so bad “fame” has this disease. Won’t touch the historical roots of syphilis (this you can read in the article “Where we got syphilis”, placed on our website), and go right to the heart of the matter.
Syphilis develops as a result of infection of the organism by a bacteria called Treponema pallidum family of spirochetes. Consistently disease goes through several stages, each of which has its own clinical picture.
Ways and causes of syphilis
The reason for the pale Treponema infection in the majority of cases, is promiscuity. Form of sexual intercourse does not matter. For Treponema main thing is to get on any mucous membrane or damaged skin. However, it should be noted that this bacterium is quite resistant in the environment and can exist for common goods up to 3 days. Therefore, it is possible and nonsexual route of infection: common goods (towels, dishes, sheets, underwear), saliva (kissing, cigarette), blood (transfusion), the birth canal of an infected mother.
Regardless of the route of transmission of the bacteria after contact with skin or mucosa, that first penetrates through the thickness of the epithelium, simultaneously damaging the vascular wall, which has a destructive effect on the surrounding tissue. Further migration of treponemes is through the lymph and blood. With blood flow it gets to the heart, musculoskeletal system.
The symptoms of syphilis
Conventionally, there are four stages of syphilis.
Incubation stage — the period lasting from the moment of infection until the first signs of the disease. Its duration is strongly tied to the immune system of the patient and can last from two weeks to two months.
The next stage is primary syphilis. Treponema starts to reproduce at the place of introduction and spread to nearby lymph nodes. At this stage, formed a distinctive symptom of syphilis is a chancre, a education that begins with local redness, and ends photoelasticity ulcer or erosion, from which the patient may not notice because of its painlessness, especially if the chancre “grew up” in a visually inaccessible location (cervix, tonsil). From the lymphatic system for the primary syphilis is characterized by the inflammation of the lymph vessels (lymphangitis) near the chancre, infiltrative swelling of the tissues (solid concentration on a particular area of tissue “cocktail” of the cellular elements of blood and lymph), first of all, the foreskin, scrotum, labia, tonsils, enlargement of lymph nodes (no pain upon probing). The duration of this stage is approximately 1.5 – 2 months.
Generalized infection takes at the stage of secondary syphilis. This can happen over a long period, estimated 3-5 years. A distinctive feature of secondary syphilis is “generous” rash that can appear almost anywhere. The appearance of lesions is preceded by 1-2 weeks of preliminary symptoms, including as General malaise, muscle and joint pain, temperature rise. Sami rash — sifilisa — have the appearance of pink or red spots (bubbles) with clear edges, delimited between them. Disappear when pressed and when drugs antisyphyllitic therapy, but can recur. When joining co-infections of civiliam may suppurate.
In the absence of proper treatment of secondary syphilis transformirovalsya in tertiary syphilis. This can occur in the period between the 3rd and 10th year from the start of infection. Now with a certain degree of conditionality, we can say that syphilis is manifested not only on the outside (in the form of chancre and civilian), but inside: in the internal organs and bones are formed of dense infiltrative bumps — gum, causing, in fact, the degeneration of the affected tissues. Depending on its localization, it is fraught with disintegration of the personality (if the affected CNS), arthritis and periostitis (bone machine), mezadenita (intraperitoneal lymph nodes), etc. the damage to the connective tissue occurs throughout the whole body. Affects the brain, heart, kidneys. The lack of treatment causes the patient’s death.
Diagnosis of syphilis
Consists of examination of the patient, medical history and laboratory tests. During the inspection, you can see the symptoms of the disease (chancre, skin rash, local alopecia of the scalp). The doctor needs information from possible casual sexual relations of the patient, presence of sexually transmitted diseases in the past and their treatment.
In the laboratory it is possible to identify herself as the pale Treponema, and antibodies thereto. In the first case is applied microscopy in dark field, the direct reaction of the fluorescence PCR. In the second case the Wassermann reaction, the reaction immunofluorescence assay, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
The treatment of syphilis
Syphilis can be cured even in the last stage, but it is not a reason for complacency, because, of course, the easiest it is treatable in its beginning phase.
The mainstay of treatment is antibiotics: tetracycline (oletetrin), doxycycline (xedin, vidotin, yunidoks), erythromycin, azithromycin (Sumamed, zi-factor, summary, summons, azitroks, asize, aziwok, smaklig), Ceftriaxone (azaran, rocephin, torie, ifice), ciprofloxacin (ciprobay, ciprobay, tsiprolet, ificipro).
The duration of treatment, frequency of dosing and the dosage is selected by the doctor-venereologist. The primary stage of syphilis treated, as a rule, without problems one 2-3-week course of antibiotics. The later stages of the antibiotic therapy can last up to a year.
For kick-starting the immune system are shown receiving immunomodulators. The role of immune cells in the destruction of pathogenic bacteria, no less than that of antibiotics.
After the course of treatment (and during treatment) and the disappearance of the symptoms of syphilis (sores, rashes) mandatory laboratory control of treatment success. Usually conducted study aimed at the detection of antibodies to pale treponeme (microreaction of precipitation).
The fact of formation of immunity after the disease is not confirmed. Treponemataceae antibodies was detected, for example, and people never a history of syphilis (by the way, maybe they just were not tested properly?). And with a latent course of syphilis may even re-infection, the so-called superinfection.
And in the end let a little polarizational, especially since the subject has. Syphilis is a hell of a bad thing. And here is appropriate not only the therapeutic aspect but also trips to the doctor, turns, glances… So never forget about prevention. If you store fidelity to the regular (and, more importantly, tested) partner lacks any strength, should be mandatory in case of accidental contact to use a condom. Although, what do you mean “random”? Accidentally can pot a ficus tree fall on his head. And here… well, seriously, if the smallest suspicion of infection should be immediately treated in dermatovenerologic dispensary for the full scale laboratory diagnostics.