Allergology

Seasonal allergies: symptoms, diagnosis and principles of treatment

Written by med

The seasonal allergies – a concept that is relevant in relation to the two types of allergic reactions: insect venom and pollen (hay fever). And if the risk of Allergy to insects is maintained over a longer period (from mid-spring to mid-autumn), manifestations of hypersensitivity reactions to plants can last for different times from a week to 4 months.
The content of the article

  • The symptoms of seasonal allergies
  • Plants, the pollen of which often cause allergies
  • Diagnosis of seasonal allergies
  • The serum concentration of immunoglobulin E
  • Provocative tests
  • Skin tests
  • Basic principles for the treatment of seasonal allergies
  • Video on the topic: “Seasonal allergies”

Seasonal allergiesallergies occurs as a result of hypersensitivity of the immune system which protects the body from penetration of bacteria and viruses. In some cases, the immune system raises a “false alarm” in response to penetration into the body certain substances (allergens) that do not carry any harm as the enemy, and taking appropriate protection measures. Such inadequate reaction is called “Allergy”.

The symptoms of seasonal allergies

Hay fever can occur at any age, but usually between 8 and 20 years (rarely after age 40).

It can be manifested only by itching in the eyes, nose and throat and signs of rhinitis: stuffy nose, runny nose, sometimes a cough. Possible loss of smell, inflammation of the sinuses (sinusitis) and the accession of bronchial asthma (especially wet summer). Atopic asthma is due to bronchial hyperreactivity in by inhalation of the allergen, which leads to spasm of the bronchi, accumulation of mucus and swelling of the mucous membrane, it provokes dyspnea and paroxysmal cough.

Pollen, can cause allergic skin reactions such as acute urticaria. Usually it lasts from several hours to several days. Unlike acute, chronic urticaria, existing for weeks and months, very rarely is an allergic reaction. It is most commonly associated with food allergens and additives, and drugs.

Hives can take many forms, but it is always characterized by the presence of blisters that can merge with each other. The rash can appear on any part of the body and accompanied by severe itching.

Angioedema is a type of skin allergic reactivates by Klinkerom a manifestation of skin Allergy is angioedema or angioedema. It can affect the face, lips, eyelids, mucous membranes and other parts of the body. Itching is often absent, there is a painful burning sensation. Angioedema becomes life-threatening if it spreads to the mucous membranes of the mouth and throat: swollen tongue and the back of the throat block the airway and can lead to suffocation.

Plants, the pollen of which often cause allergies

Hay fever is most often develops in sensitization to the pollen of grasses (Timothy, foxtail, oats, rye, etc.), trees (birch, maple, alder, hazel, beech, elm, willow, poplar, ash) and weeds (ragweed, dandelion, plantain, sorrel, nettle, goldenrod, saltbush, sagebrush, etc.).

Diagnosis of seasonal allergies

Basic methods of diagnosis – inspection and survey of the patient. A survey of the patient or his parents — very detailed, includes analysis of complaints and possible precipitating factors, history of disease, data on disease relatives, about the way of life and work, the treatment.

If necessary, the doctor can appoint carrying out a variety of additional research methods depending on the specific case.

The serum concentration of immunoglobulin E

For the diagnosis of Allergy the great value has definition in blood of concentration of IgE (immunoglobulin E). The increase of the content of the evidence in favor of the body to produce specific antibodies against allergens. Determination of IgE is in the serum, collect the patient from the vein. For the test used by more than 200 allergens, determine both General and allergen-specific IgE, thus indirectly judge about the allergen that caused the formation of immunoglobulin E and group responsible for allergies.

Provocative tests

If in response to the alleged introduction of the allergen develops an allergic reaction, the allergen can be considered as causally meaningful (specific).

Skin tests

The introduction into the skin (forearm or back) of small amounts of purified allergens in known concentrations, the results of an allergic reaction can be assessed after 20 minutes. The sample is considered positive if it is noted the formation of papules, erythema (redness) or rash.

Basic principles for the treatment of seasonal allergies

When is the dangerous period, the first and most logical precaution to limit your contact with the allergen. Keep the Windows in the house closed. If possible, use air conditioning. While in the car, raise your glass. When you return from the street take a shower and rinse the hair. Do not dry linen in the street. Working in the garden, you can wear a protective bandage on his nose and mouth.

Maximally reduce the time of stay outdoors, especially in the country. If you are allergic to fungus, avoid stay in places where there is rotting hay and in the woods and parks with fallen wet leaves. If possible, spend this time on vacation in another climate zone where the bloom has ended or has not started, or where pollen is less than, for example, on the coast.

Possibly go out at the most advantageous time. Less pollen is in the air on damp rainy days, and fungal spores — on the contrary, in dry and Sunny weather. On windy days the amount of pollen and spores in the air much more, plus they are carried over long distances. So quiet, windless days are more suitable for staying outdoors. The safest time of day — morning, while the pollen is still wet. Most fungi spores in the air sometimes in the evening.

Contact your doctor or allergist. He will conduct tests and determine what is causing your allergic reaction and prescribe treatment. The most widely used for the treatment of allergic diseases used antihistamines. They block the action of histamine, the substance responsible for the allergic manifestations. Some antihistamines — suprastin, diphenhydramine, tavegil, often can cause drowsiness, it should take into account people getting behind the wheel of a car. New generation drugs (loratadine, cetirizine, Fexofenadine, ebastine, kestin) does not have a sedative effect. Significantly reduce or even completely get rid of allergies with allergen-specific immune therapy. It lies in the fact that before the danger period under the skin are certain doses of the causal allergen that promotes desensitization, i.e. a reduction of the sensitivity to the allergen.

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