The diet of the child aged from one to three years must be complete, varied and, most importantly, enough calories. Proper nutrition of children after the first year of life is a very important part of a child’s life, because food and mode of feeding has a huge impact on the further development of the baby.
Starting from the second year of life, the child has increased needs for food. Daily volume of food makes from 1000 to 1200 ml, and the energy value of 1100-1300 calories per day. This is due to the increase of the functional activity of the digestive tract, the motor activity of the child. Child needs a qualitative and quantitative balance of food. It is necessary to remember that at the age of 1 year baby’s stomach only holds 250 ml, in 2 years 300-400 ml, and for 3 years 400-600 ml, so overfeed the child is not necessary, because it can provoke the disruption of the digestive system.
The need for protein, fats and carbohydrates
A day a child 1-3 years old needs 30-40 grams of protein (approximately 3-4 g per kilogram of body weight). We must remember that in this age most of the protein should be of animal origin, as animal proteins contain all the essential amino acids that build proteins of their own child. The main part of protein comes to baby milk (up to 2 years – breast milk or adapted milk formula, in older children – cow’s milk). Early translations into whole milk is not recommended, as it hampers the absorption of iron, overloads the pancreas and even cause minor bleeding from the intestines. The daily requirement of milk is about 600 ml with addition of 200 ml of kefir or liquid yogurt.
The second important source of protein is meat, choose lean varieties (beef, veal, rabbit, Turkey) and liver. Beef is the main source of easily digestible forms of iron. Therefore, for prevention of anemia in children fed meat daily, twice a week, replacing it with fish. In this case the meat needs to be shredded into mincemeat. Only after the kid turns 1.5 years meat can be cooked in small pieces and to give. A day is given 50-70 grams of meat.
Cheese. Contains milk protein and calcium, necessary for bones and teeth. It is important to remember that the purchase curds are often unsuitable for children under 3 years without heat treatment, as it is not completely sterile and can lead to poisoning. Option — prepare calcined curd, adding to the boiling milk, the calcium chloride from the vials. To 90 g per day.
Cheese. In addition to milk protein contains fluoride (particulate class I) and calcium.
Eggs. Protein, iron. Children up to six years – only the yolk. 2 years – 1 egg up to 3 times a week. Three years omelette. The egg can be a source of Salmonella, so cook for 20 minutes.
Daily requirement of fats 40 grams. The most good are milk fats, and the fats contained in egg yolks, butter. So beloved by many generations of mothers fish oil today recognized by pediatricians undesirable product due to the negative effect on the pancreas.
Vegetable fats are better to fill sunflower or olive oil. Vegetable fats contain polyunsaturated fatty acids which are necessary for normal maturation of the nervous system and the formation of a full brain. It is worth noting the undesirability of the use of children of palm oil, as it is split at temperatures above 40 degrees and rather refers to technical fats.
Need carbs a lot more, because they are the main source of energy. Is 160-200 grams per day. Most carbohydrates in sweets, bread and fruit. Preferable “protected carbs”: porridge made from buckwheat and rice, durum pasta, vegetables. Fruits are preferable to candy and honey, which loads the pancreas. At this age can already begin to give your child grapes, tangerines, oranges, plums, peaches. Vegetables child can be given any. Vegetables you won’t have to RUB on a small grater, or cut into small cubes. Can any cereal: rice, buckwheat, oatmeal and millet, and barley. The most useless is considered semolina, although many children are willing to eat it. Bread can be given white and black.
Meals can be steamed or boiled, sometimes fried or baked in small amount of water. At this age, the food already can be a bit add some salt and, in some cases, you can add garlic and some green onions.
Well, each child needs to be given water, about 100-120 ml per kg of weight. Under the new recommendations after a year begin to give undiluted juice. Actual compotes and jellies.
The child’s diet
Children up to 1.5 years, must be fed five times a day, after 1.5 — only 4 times a day. Food must be fresh, warm and, most importantly, delicious (the child has well developed taste buds). Appearance food must also be attractive and contribute to increased appetite. Must be picked up safe cookware. It is not necessary to force the child to eat more than he wants. Feeding should take place from 20 to 40 minutes. Parents at feeding time should be calm and patient, even if the child vrednichaet, it is necessary to teach the child a little to eat on their own.
It is not recommended to cook in advance and then reheated. At that age, is strictly prohibited fried meals, fatty meats, mayonnaise, margarine, dark chocolate, sugar, sweet soda, candy, pepper and spices. Citrus fruits and vegetables of red color can cause allergies. Sausages, sausages, smoked meats to give to children are strictly prohibited for up to three years. It is desirable that a daily dose of sweet was not more than 40-50 g. it is best to give the child the marmalade, dried fruit.