Gynecology Obstetrics

Polyp of cervix: types, causes, symptoms and treatment

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Polyp of the cervix are benign pathological processes and is not uncommon. Usually this disease is diagnosed in women older than 40 years, but there are cases when cervical polyps were found in young girls (under 9 years). The question immediately arises: “is it Dangerous?” By itself, the pathology does not pose a threat to women’s health, but within the framework of mandatory malignancies cervical polyps removed.
The content of the article

  • Polyp of the cervix: what is it?
  • Types of polyps
  • Causes
  • Symptoms
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment: removal of polyp of the cervix

Polyp of the cervix: what is it?

Uterus communicates with the vagina through the cervix, directly through its canal (cervical), which is internally covered with cylindrical epithelium. The expansion of the epithelium (hyperplasia) due to various factors may be diffuse, that is, on the entire surface of the channel and patchy, in a certain place. Focal hyperplasia of the epithelium of the cervix is a polyp of the cervix.

A polyp of the cervical canal is called benign pathological entity which is located inside it. Roughly speaking, a cervical polyp is a wart, which is located in the cervical canal. Maybe polyp Localized in the outer pharynx, and middle or upper part of endocervix.

Types of polyps

Distinguish between true polyps and pseudopolyps. Pseudoprime presented vypyachivalis decidual shell in the end of the second phase of the menstrual cycle or during pregnancy.

In its histological structure (the ratio of glandular and connective tissue) polyps of the cervical canal can be glandular, glandular-fibrous and adenomatous. Unlike other polyps are adenomatous education is covered by epithelium in the path of transformation into pre-cancerous cells.


Polyp of the cervix (photo)At present, the exact causes that lead to the appearance of a polyp of the cervical canal, is not established. But is there a link between cervical polyps and a number of factors. Primarily predispose to the development of the disease various hormonal disorders in the body. These include: age the UPS and downs of hormone levels (premenopausal women), pregnancy, gynaecological diseases caused by hormonal failure (uterine fibroids, endometriosis, ovarian dysfunction). Also the appearance of a polyp of the cervix can cause the existing background diseases of the cervix (ectopia, leukoplakia, cervicitis), cervical mechanical damage (tearing of the cervix during childbirth, abortion, vysalivaniya and other manipulations), chronic inflammatory diseases of the reproductive system (STDs, obesity, chronic adnexitis, endometritis). And, of course, do not forget about the long-term stress, hypovitaminosis, nervous and physical exhaustion, which leads to decrease in immunity and an imbalance of the endocrine system.

Symptoms Age women, who are most often diagnosed cervical polyps, corresponds to 40 or more years. Characteristic clinical manifestations of the disease is not, it is often detected by chance during routine examination or when addressing the patient to the gynecologist for another reason. Complaints that patients present with existing polyp of the cervical canal caused by either concomitant gynecological pathology, or secondary changes that have occurred in education. Women often complain of dragging pain in the abdomen, especially before menstruation, menstrual irregularities, spotting before and after menstruation. Some patients indicate increased vaginal whiter, which is associated with the production of mucus columnar epithelium covering the polyp. If the polyp has a fairly large size, which is rare, it can cause permanent discomfort and pain during sexual intercourse. The polyp of the cervical canal is usually less than 10 mm, its form can be different: round, elongated, oval and other. Education can have a leg, which, lengthening, “transportorul” polyp of the middle and upper part of the cervical canal at the external OS region and beyond. Sometimes the polyps are situated on a broad basis. The color of The formations is also different, they can be pale pink, whitish, purple or red shades. Dark color shades polyp evidence of secondary changes.

Secondary changes include poor circulation in the polyp, stromal edema and stagnation of blood in the vessels supplying the education. Against this background, women complaints appear sukrovichnye allocation (injury, infection, polyp) and contact spotting after intercourse.

Polyp of the cervix is extremely rare, but prone to malignancy (degeneration into cancer). The frequency of malignancy is 1.5 – 2%. In the process of degeneration of a polyp through the following stages:

  • hyperplasia – excessive proliferation of the epithelium of the cervical canal;
  • metaplasia one type of epithelium is converted to another;
  • dysplasia in the epithelium appears abnormal cells are called precancerous (any impact on them starts the process of transformation into cancer);
  • a malignant process.


To diagnose the disease is quite simple. When viewed in a mirror the doctor sees abnormal formation located either within the external OS, or vypyachivalis from the cervical canal. Mandatory shows a colposcopy (allows you to see dysplastic or malignant process). Appointed ultrasound of the pelvic organs, hysteroscopy since polyps of the cervix is often associated with the uterine pathology. Mandatory PAP smears are lower for Cytology and research in sexually transmitted infections.

Treatment: removal of polyp of the cervix

Treatment of polyp of the cervical canal only online. No medications, and the more traditional methods will not help to get rid of the formation in the cervical canal. Removal of polyp (polypectomy) of the cervix is surgically (removing the polyp with a further coagulation by his bed) or by cryotherapy, laser or radio wave surgery (Surgitron machine). If you remove the polyp also conduct diagnostic curettage of the cervix and uterus. Remote polyp and the material obtained by curettage, should be sent for histological examination.

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