Mycoplasmosis (an important clarification: we are talking about his urogenital), infection-inflammatory disease of the urinary tract, developing as a result of their destruction by micro-organisms of the family Mycoplasmataceae. It should be noted that Mycoplasma is a fairly frequent “guest” of the urogenital tract, but not always marked by the presence of any clinical manifestations.
However, doctors recommend that reinsurers are perfectly justified to take preventive measures to get rid of Mycoplasma even if the concealed carrier.
Causes and modes of transmission of mycoplasmosis
The reason mycoplasmosis is one: infection with Mycoplasma. What is this parasite? Mycoplasma as her “friend” chlamydia is a cross between a bacterium and a virus, because it is parasitic, like a virus, intracellular. By the way, so in a normal optical microscope you can’t see it. There are three pathogenic species of Mycoplasma: hominis, pneumonia and genitalium. So, if you have found, for example, Mycoplasma, Cintia, then don’t worry: it doesn’t “bite.” To deal with Mycoplasma in the first place? The epithelium of the urinary tract and mucous membrane of the respiratory tract.
We can confidently assert the presence of only two modes of transmission of Mycoplasma: sexual and vertical (with the passage of the baby through the birth canal of an infected mother). The third way is contact-household — in relation to Mycoplasma is not confirmed.
The vast majority of cases, infection of Mycoplasma occurs as a result of sexual contact (“normal”, oral, anal), after which the newly infected subject is a hidden carrier of this pathogen. In consequence you can live with him for years, not even knowing about such an unpleasant neighborhood.
Symptoms of mycoplasmosis
As already mentioned, the clinical picture of the disease may be unexpressed. If mycoplasmosis is still manifest, in the form of inflammation. Depending on the localization of inflammation develops a particular disease, the cause of which was the damaging effects of Mycoplasma. Below are listed the most common diseases associated with Mycoplasma. Let’s start with women. So, inflammation can be:
- the mucosa of the urethra (urethritis). For urethritis characterized by itching, burning and pains in the urethra, especially during urination;
- vaginal mucosa (vaginitis). Vaginitis is also accompanied by an itch and burning, not only in the urethra and the vagina, and the pain does not occur when urinating and during sexual intercourse. Can be scarce Muco-purulent malodorous discharge;
- the mucosa of the uterus and the cervical canal of the uterus (endometritis). In endometritis the patient feels pain and heaviness in the abdomen, spotting between periods. The most unpleasant consequence of endometritis early miscarriages and female infertility;
- the ovaries and fallopian tubes (adnexitis). The clinical picture of adnexitis “spectacular” rise in temperature, pain in the abdomen (comparable to pain in appendicitis), menstrual disorders, pain during menstruation. When adnexitis may occur blockage of the fallopian tube due to the swelling of inflamed mucosa, which can also lead to female infertility.
Now “go” for males. Representatives of a strong half of mankind, the inflammatory process can be localized:
- in the mucosa of the urethra. Symptoms of urethritis men are similar to women: the same cramps when urinating, burning and itching in the urethra. When ejaculations pain also occur;
- in the prostate gland (prostatitis). Prostatitis is marked by pain in the groin, frequent and painful urination, “weakness” in the genital area;
- in the testes (orchitis). When orchitis is marked enlargement and tenderness of the testicle, especially strong when pressed. In acute orchitis fever, there are headaches and muscle weakness.
The last two diseases may ultimately have a negative impact on the quality and quantity of sperm and consequently cause male infertility.
Diagnosis of mycoplasmosis
For sure to identify mycoplasmosis due to the absence in the initial stages of the disease (and even throughout) the symptoms is only possible with laboratory testing. However, in connection with the breadth of the spectrum of possible genital infections gynecological examination (for men — urologist) is still necessary in order to “cut off” (or, alternatively, to identify) the possible diseases which combines mycoplasmosis. All this is needed in the appointment of adequate treatment.
Don’t like to use cliches, but seem to have: the gold standard for the diagnosis of mycoplasmosis is the method of PCR and bacteriological examination. PCR diagnostics is known for its pinpoint accuracy: it can detect DNA even a negligible amount of pathogens. Bacteriological examination take swab from biological environments of the patient, after which the sample is planted in a special nutrient medium, and then grown culture examined under a microscope. It’s more the “carpet” method to identify a range of existing patient genital infections.
Treatment of mycoplasmosis
Treatment of mycoplasmosis is simply unthinkable without antibiotics. The first recommendation of the use of antibiotics — not to self-medicate to avoid the development of microbial resistance. The whole process treatment should take place with the knowledge and under the supervision of a physician. Should be treated, both partners, otherwise it would be in vain for lost time. During treatment, sexual intercourse is excluded. Upon completion of the medical course is a follow-up examination, only after which it will be possible to judge the success of prescribed treatment. Mycoplasmosis “in the course of” the following medications:
- Doxycycline (Vidotin, Yunidoks Solutab, Xedin);
- Clarithromycin (Fromilid UNO, Clarbact, Klacid, Kaspar);
- Josamycin (Wilprafen Solutab);
- Levofloxacin (Leflox, Lelouch, Remedia, Inflamed, Sigsize).
In addition to the antibiotics in the framework of the concomitant therapy your doctor may prescribe drugs that stimulate immunity (Tsikloferon, Derinat, Anagen, Polyoxidonium), antioxidant vitamins, nootropics. For the purposes of normalization of microflora, considerably “spoiled” antibacterial treatment (this is the dark side of antibiotics) are assigned to probiotics: Bifidumbakterin, Linex, hilak Forte.
What to advise in terms of prevention? To attend the lecture about the dangers of casual sex. But seriously, condom use and regular health checks for sexually transmitted infections are guaranteed to help keep the “sexual” health.