Gynecology

Menstrual disorders: causes and treatment

Written by med

To date, the menstrual cycle (NMC) is almost the most frequent female “trouble” with which they appeal to the gynecologist. The menstrual cycle is an indicator of the endocrine system of the female body and, if it is different from the usual, then there is a hormonal imbalance.

It is not necessary to associate the menstrual cycle purely with the sex hormones. Almost any ductless gland (“thyroid”, adrenal glands, pituitary gland) can cause this gynecological disorder. Speaking the language of numbers, about 70% of women (and according to some estimates — and up to 80%) have experienced some form of menstrual irregularities.
The content of the article

  • The menstrual cycle: a brief educational program
  • Types of menstrual disorders
  • Causes of menstrual irregularities
  • Diseases that cause disruption of the menstrual cycle
  • Treatment of menstrual disorders
  • Consequences of menstrual disorders in the untimely appeal to the doctor
  • Video on the topic: “the menstrual cycle”

The menstrual cycle: a brief educational program

Dysmenorrhea, disorders of menstruation, characterized by pains in the abdomen, lower back and sacrum. Touch on, so to speak, the “technical” side of the issue, without which our article would not be quite complete. Direct control of the menstrual cycle is divided between two interconnected brain region: hypothalamus and pituitary gland. The chain is formed “the hypothalamus-pituitary-ovary”, interaction which is implemented on the principle of direct and feedback. Hormones of each of the links in the stimulate the production those at the lower level. The ultimate “target” of this triad is ripening in the ovary the bubble with egg (follicle), which also secretes the most important hormone is estrogen. After the release from the follicle into the fallopian tube, the egg begins to secrete another female sex hormone — progesterone. The role of progesterone and estrogen is to prepare the body for a future pregnancy. If the egg is not “lucky” to meet with the sperm, and fertilization does not occur, begins the rejection of the mucous membrane lining the uterus (endometrium). This is the physiological end of the cycle (although in obstetrics it is considered that it is its beginning). The whole process takes on average from 3 weeks to a month.

Periods are considered irregular if the gap between them more than 40 or less than 21 days.

Types of menstrual disorders

  • amenorrhea or absence of menstruation. This extreme degree of severity of the nmts;
  • dysmenorrhea, when during menstruation develops a distinct pain syndrome of the abdomen;
  • oligomenorrhea/polimenorea, i.e. increase/decrease the intervals between menstruation;
  • hypermenorrhea — increased amount of discharge during menstruation.

Causes of menstrual irregularities

  • external effects of a wide range of different factors that create adverse conditions for the current MC: stress, travel, changing climate zones, deviation from the usual diet;
  • disease (see below);
  • side effects when taking or cancellation of certain medicines.

Diseases that cause disruption of the menstrual cycle

  • dysfunction and pathological changes of the individual components of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian system;
  • pathology (including tumors) adrenal glands;
  • tissue growth (polyps) endometrial;
  • chronic inflammation of the uterus (endometritis);
  • the growth of the endometrium outside the uterus (endometriosis);
  • mechanical damage to the uterus during the abortion;
  • surgery;
  • of blood clotting.

Treatment of menstrual disorders

Not the fact that the cause of menstrual disorders, is any disease. In this regard, it is first necessary to exclude the influence of external factors, which could provoke a NMC: to normalize the diet, to try to protect themselves from the stress and excessive exercise. If the cause of menstrual disorder served as the disease, the treatment, respectively, should be directed to the removal of the primary pathological focus. Based on the diagnosis, tactics of treatment determined by the physician.

In severe symptoms (heavy bleeding), if the clotting system there are no “problems”, applied and symptomatic treatment (not directed at the cause, and symptom): hemostatic drugs, hormonal contraceptives, surgery (in extreme cases).

Consequences of menstrual disorders in the untimely appeal to the doctor

  • infertility;
  • chronic progressive fatigue due to abundant blood loss;
  • deep endocrine disorders;
  • delayed diagnosis of the underlying disease may be the most severe consequences including death.

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