Gynecology

Menopause in women: symptoms, age, treatment

Written by med

Our life is woven from variegated quilt of different events and phenomena, some of which depend purely on us, while others occur completely independently of our will. Ringing the summer heat always gives way to chilly autumn mud, a gaggle of young Lapwings with their Cavaliers, who finished a cozy gazebo in the yard is more irritating than a condescending smile, and four-legged friend, yesterday cheerfully cut circles on the front of the house prefers more philosophical and measured contemplation of the reality of your couch.

Menopause very naturally fits in with this imagery, coming on schedule, but without an invitation, changing the whole way of life. This milestone in women’s life milepost, for which her reproductive ability gradually begins to fade. The ovaries “take watch” for the winter, replacing active work during the period of puberty to “overtime mode” and stopping the production of hormones. The egg, which maturation during the menstrual cycle until recently you could almost set your clock now stands out less, and at some point it stops very troublesome thing. Menstruation will also end. But most importantly, it should be clearly imagine no tragedy in this, is still just beginning.
The content of the article

  • Causes of menopause
  • The types of menopause
  • Phase of menopause
  • The symptoms of menopause
  • Early climacteric disorders
  • Srednerazmernye menopausal disorders
  • Menopausal disorders late period
  • Diagnosis of menopause
  • Treatment or mitigate the symptoms of menopause
  • Video on the topic: “How menopause changes a woman’s life”

Causes of menopause

Speaking of the tedious language of the lecturer of the medical University, which broadcasts in half-empty auditorium, standing with a pointer in front of the poster of the female reproductive system, “menopause is associated with functional changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian chains and manifested in a reduction and then almost complete cessation of menstruation and hormonal activity of the ovaries due to aging”.

The types of menopause

Menopause in women the Onset of menopause before the age of 40 years is considered early menopause and can be associated with various adverse factors, such as chronic infection, poor working conditions, unfavorable living conditions, high stress, disease, “thyroid”, repeated childbirth with blood loss or abortion.

Late menopause — after 55 years — associated in turn with uterine fibroids, hypertension. Thus, the norm for the onset of menopause is considered to be age around 45-50 years.

It is impossible not to circumvent entrenched in women’s minds the myth about the relationship of menopause with the lack of sexual life. So its absence in no way approaches the menopause!

Phase of menopause

The first phase is called menopause , the premenopausal women. Time frame lie between the first signs of fading of ovarian activity and the cessation of menstruation. Women are often interested in the question: “What are the first symptoms of menopause?”. They just manifested the first phase of menopause — menstruation becomes irregular, the amount of flow progressively diminishes, sometimes it happens, and sudden cessation of menstruation. Reproductive function, of course, also reduced. The premenopausal women usually begins at age 45 and lasts an average of 8 years.

For premenopausal women should, in fact, menopause. This phase can be called “meeting of the last menstrual period”. On the onset of menopause can only speak in hindsight: after a year or two after the cessation of menstruation. This happens in a period of 45-55 years. By the way, despite the cessation of the menstrual cycle, the ovaries still have a small stock of unencumbered follicles, so a no, but the chance of getting pregnant is still present. So the question of contraception at the menopause is not yet removed from the agenda.

The last phase of menopause, postmenopausal, lasting from the date of the last menstrual period until the complete cessation of the functioning of the ovaries.

The symptoms of menopause

For anybody not a secret that abnormalities in the psycho-emotional state of women during this period blamed it on menopause. Yes, it is, but, in addition to neuro-psychological, menopausal syndrome involves the endocrine, vegetative-vascular and other disorders. This is how not difficult to guess, with decreased production of estrogen by the ovaries. The receptors of these female sex hormones are found in many organs and tissues: uterus, vagina, urethra, pelvic muscles, bones, blood vessels, mucous membranes of the intestines, the eyes and mouth, the brain. Thus, the lack of estrogen affects the work of all these bodies.

Early climacteric disorders

Menopause pathological conditions have a different character depending on the time of the manifestation. Early climacteric disorders start several years before menopause and lasts until 5 years after it. Here are their symptoms:

  • excessive sweating, throwing into heat (so-called “hot flashes”);
  • headaches;
  • chills;
  • heart palpitations;
  • sudden changes in pressure;
  • psycho-emotional disorders (irritability, depression, drowsiness, weakening of memory, decline in libido).

Srednerazmernye menopausal disorders

Srednerazmernye menopausal disorders mostly associated with disorders in the sexual sphere. This pain during sexual contact, itching and dryness in vagina, frequent urination, inflammation of the urethra and bladder. This often baffles doctors prescribing antibiotics are unsuccessfully struggling with non-existent pathogens, although the case here is the climax.

Menopausal disorders late period

Menopausal disorders late period associated with the following pathologies:

  • increase in bone fragility and reduced bone mass (osteoporosis);
  • metabolic disorders (overweight, diabetes);
  • violations by the cardiovascular system (atherosclerosis, ischemia, heart attack, stroke);
  • illness “Alzheimer’s”, ie, calling things by their language, of senile dementia.

Diagnosis of menopause

The diagnosis is made based on the above symptoms. If they are very pronounced, then further defined by the content of hormones in blood, the analysis on biochemistry, blood lipid spectrum, a transvaginal ultrasound, osteodensitometry (measurement of bone density). At least once a year mammography is done in order to eliminate the risk of breast cancer.

Treatment or mitigate the symptoms of menopause

Gynecologist individually selects hormonal drugs to mitigate the symptoms of menopause As already mentioned, climacteric disorders associated with estrogen deficiency, so it is logical to assume that it would be necessary for these hormones to “flip” from the outside. So it is: hormone replacement therapy — the “gold standard” for the correction of menopausal symptoms. The selection of the drug — especially individual case and is given entirely at the mercy of the gynecologist, who estimates the ratio of all the risks and benefits based on individual contraindications and indications. Dosage is the minimal possible, and in postmenopausal women they are even more reduced.

Additionally you can receive a sedative and hypotensive (including beta-blockers). Recommended morning exercises, nutrition with a reasonable minimum of fats and carbohydrates, avoiding harmful habits (alcohol/Smoking).

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