Hypogonadism is a complex of symptoms caused by the oppression of the sex glands and the violation of the allocation of sex hormones. Typical of its manifestation — the faintness of secondary sexual characteristics, absence of menstruation (in women), impaired metabolic processes, which in turn leads to overweight or, on the contrary, to exhaustion, deformation of the skeletal system, cardiovascular pathologies.
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The hypothalamic-pituitary system (GHS)
This complex structure of the brain, represented by the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. The hypothalamus through releasing releasing hormones starts the process of secretion of pituitary gonadotropins that are essential to the development and functioning of sexual glands in both sexes. These hormones play a critical role in the regulation of sexual function. In women they provide the growth of bubbles-follicles in which the oocyte is matured, as well as the secretion of estrogen, ovulation. Men control the maturation of sperm and are responsible for the synthesis of androgens.
Types of hypogonadism
- primary hypogonadism (PHG) is associated with dysfunction or underdevelopment of sexual glands due to infection, mechanical injury, surgery, or radiation injury;
- the origins of secondary hypogonadism (SSH) will be found in the work of the GHS. That is, in respect of defects in GGS observed indirect effect on the sex glands, hence the name secondary.
- congenital hypogonadism is associated, generally, with a hereditary genetically deterministic impairments;
- the emergence of acquired hypogonadism after birth contributes to a number of specific adverse factors.
Hypogonadism in men: pricinples primary hypogonadism in men
- genetic (examples: violation of the structure of the testis or the seminiferous tubules);
- chemical-toxic effect (cancer treatment with chemotherapy, alcohol, tetracycline antibiotics, pesticides, abuse of hormonal therapy);
- infections (mumps, vesiculitis, rubella);
- irradiation (by x-ray examination, radiation therapy);
- damage to the testicles caused by surgery;
- mechanical trauma;
- the dilation of blood vessels of the spermatic cord, the so-called varicocele.
Causes of secondary hypogonadism in men
- tumors of various parts of the pituitary gland;
- biological aging.
Hypogonadism in women: pricinples primary hypogonadism in women
- chromosomal abnormalities;
- underdevelopment of the ovaries from birth;
- inflammation of the ovaries in the result of a failure in the immune system when the woman’s body begins the production of antibodies to own tissues;
- surgical removal of the ovaries;
- the syndrome of testicular feminization (appearance of female, but the genes — male);
- polycystic ovary syndrome (change of the functional structure of the ovaries. At the moment the cause of this pathology is not fully established).
Causes of secondary hypogonadism in women
Tumors and inflammations (meningitis, encephalitis) of the brain.
Symptoms of hypogonadism in maschinenraum hypogonadism in men
- delayed sexual development;
- the disproportionate development of bone-muscular apparatus (tall, long arms and legs, sunken chest, muscle weakness);
- the deposition of adipose tissue on the female type (in the chest area, hips, buttocks);
- small penis, underdeveloped prostate;
- a thin voice;
- the absence of hair on the face and pubes;
- the subtlety and fragility of the skin;
- hypoactive sexual desire.
The severity of symptoms depends on the period of disease development (later less).
Symptoms of hypogonadism in women
- If the illness was developed before puberty: underdevelopment, but if the disease started from the moment of birth or at an early age — the complete absence of secondary sexual characteristics (external genitalia, mammary glands, decorated buttocks, body hair on the pubes and in the armpits), the narrowness of the pelvis, high growth;
- If the disease developed during or after puberty, secondary sexual characteristics are present, however, there are a number of other symptoms:
- failure or complete absence of menstruation;
- atrophy of the tissues of the female genital organs;
- vegetative-vascular dystonia (disruption of the cardiovascular system with a whole “bouquet” of different symptoms).
Diagnosis and treatment of hypogonadism
Hypogonadism is a serious pathology, and the doctor here is not the best assistant, you need a more narrow specialists: andrologist, gynecologist, endocrinologist. Of course, no self can not be out of the question.
The clearest clinical manifestations of hypogonadism to a certain extent, facilitate the accurate diagnosis already during the inspection and survey of the patient. After that, to confirm the diagnosis additional studies.
The main thing in the treatment of hypogonadism — the elimination of the causes of disease, not its consequences. Therefore, the determining factor in the choice of strategy and tactics of treatment is the nature of the underlying disease.
Therapeutic interventions in adult patients are directed primarily to the correction of sexual function. As for the infertility, which developed until puberty, then it is, unfortunately, incurable.
Treatment of hypogonadism in men
When partially preserved secretory function of the testicles of boys prescribed hormonal drugs, adults the drugs based on testosterone and gonadotropin in small doses. If the testicles have completely lost its function, then replacement therapy with preparations of male sex hormones becomes a constant companion of life.
The variant of surgical treatment (transplantation of the testicle, the restoration of the penis).
Treatment of hypogonadism in women
Women with primary hypogonadism shows the reception of female hormones (ethinyl estradiol). The scheme of treatment is determined individually depending on the individual indications and contraindications, age and the nature of the disease of the patient. Upon reaching menstrualnopodobnoe reaction treatment continued combined hormonal contraceptives (Diane-35, three-regolith, trikvilar).
Prevention of hypogonadism
Given the possible genetic nature of the underlying disease, in which it noted hypogonadism, one of the most important preventive measures is the surveillance of pregnant women in order to eliminate harmful effects on their body. Timely treatment of infectious and endocrine diseases also will help to prevent hypogonadism.