In our society, ingrained prejudice against fat. At the mention of the word automatically having negative connotations. So do fats such attitude? Take the blood, the most important biological substances that carry to the organs and tissues of oxygen and nutrients. It would seem that fats do not belong there. Meanwhile, things were not quite so.
The content of the article
Excess of cholesterol on the inner wall of the blood vessels Fats and fat-like substances of the blood lipids are essential for normal functioning of the body. Along with other lipids, which have become a byword cholesterol is the basis of cell membranes. Accumulates in fat depots, lipids are used as a source of much needed body energy. Cholesterol, sinteziruemy in the liver, is a substrate for the formation of bile acids to accomplish digestive function. Based on it also synthesizes sex hormones and the adrenocortical hormones, which are important regulators of many biochemical processes. Perhaps this may sound a bit seditious, but the lack of cholesterol for the body worse than its excess. Thus, the role of fats in the body in any case should not be underestimated.
Fats: the flip side of the coin
Sorry, have to add a bit of retouching on this blissful picture presented by the paragraph above. The link between elevated cholesterol and cardiovascular disease was seen by scientists for more than a quarter of a century ago. Excess cholesterol have a bad tendency to settle on the inner wall of blood vessels, preventing normal blood flow to organs and tissues. This is called atherosclerosis. Impaired activity of major organs: heart and brain, which can lead to tragic consequences in the form of heart attacks and strokes. Such is the two-faced this cholesterol.
“Bad” and “good” cholesterol
To perform a blood cholesterol taken in the morning fasting venous blood can Not live in modern society and never hear about the fact that cholesterol is “bad” and “good”. The first are the fraction of cholesterol, called low density lipoproteins (LDL), the second is high (HDL). It forms of LDL in the vascular wall of atherosclerotic plaque reduces the vessel lumen. Thus impeding the blood flow, which leads to the development of heart failure. LPVN on the contrary, it is a carrier of “bad” cholesterol in the liver, because it does not accumulate on the walls of blood vessels. In the liver cholesterol is involved in the cycle of biochemical processes and is used for “peaceful” needs, which have already been described above.
What does this mean? That cholesterol cholesterol from different. The total content of cholesterol in the blood is not significant. Two people cholesterol may be equally increased, but the quality of its “layout” is different. And one who has a higher level of HDL, will be in a much better position. To get an accurate idea of the content of cholesterol it is necessary to explore the whole range of cholesterol fractions, i.e. to make lipidogramu.
Briefly about lipidogramu
Lipid profile or blood cholesterol includes 4 indicators: total cholesterol, LDL, HDL and triglycerides (the last is a large part of the adipose tissue). To perform the analysis is taken in the morning fasting venous blood. Before testing should not be for 6-8 hours to eat (which is not hard to do, considering that the blood gives up in the morning). A few days before testing it is necessary to limit physical activity and do not lean on fatty foods (the latter recommendation is, in principle, can operate continuously).
Transcript of lipidogram values of lipid
First, we give the values of lipid in normal:
- Total cholesterol – from 3.1 to 5.2 mmol/l;
- HDL is over 1.68 mmol/l in women and 1.42 mmol/l in men;
- LDL – less than 3.9 mmol/l;
- Triglycerides – from 0.14 to 1.82 mmol/L.
In addition to the above indicators lipid profile gives the opportunity to calculate the so-called atherogenic coefficient, which represents the difference between total cholesterol and HDL to HDL (KA = (total cholesterol – HDL)/HDL). If the result value is less than 3, it speaks to the high blood levels of “good” cholesterol and minimizing the risk of atherosclerosis. If this ratio is equal to 3-4, the risk of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease is already present, and if it is greater than 5, then the atherosclerosis, that is, in full swing.
Indicators of lipid separately. Signs of atherosclerosis Triglycerides, along with LDL, are also a risk factor for development of atherosclerotic vascular changes and ischemia. The concentration of triglycerides higher of 2.29 mmol/l suggests that a person already has established atherosclerosis or coronary heart disease. Border values between 1.9 and 2.2 mmol/l indicate that, as a classic said, “the process has begun” (though the context in this case, purely negative) and the need to take urgent preventive measures.
If blood levels of LDL cholesterol above 4.9 mmol/l, then it is atherosclerosis. Border values are considered to be the 4.0-4.9 mmol/L.
A sign of the presence of atherosclerosis is also low content of HDL: below, of 1.16 mmol/l in men and less than 0.9 mmol/l in women. High HDL levels (above those values, which we have indicated as normal) indicates minimal risk of atherosclerosis and ischemia. Edge values are in the range from 1.16 to 1.68 mmol/l in men and from 0.9 to 1.4 mmol/l in women.