Sex infections

Gonorrhea: transmission, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment

Gonorrhea
Written by med

Gonorrhea has come to us from ancient times. You can even mark significant dates, such as “Millennium gonorrhoea”. Sounds? Yes, like as not. Indeed, to be proud of is absolutely nothing. However, the international classification of diseases do not share their noble and shameful. Therefore, in this article you will not find boring moralizing. Only dry medical truth.

To say that gonorrhea is the most common sexually transmitted disease, it is impossible, but it will be far from the truth: she is often sick and many. Antibiotics, of course, decide the issue, but only to a certain extent. Many people prefer not to publicize this disease and are treated independently and, often, incorrectly, that in the case of antibiotics leads eventually to the formation of resistant forms of pathogenic bacteria and disease transition in the chronic form.

The route of transmission of gonorrhea

In the vast majority of infections occur through sexual contact. Moreover, this contact can be as “standard”, genital, and oral or anal (be different if it is only the clinical picture of the disease). What can I say, if infection is possible even with a simple touch sexual organs, no “penetration”. A woman infected with gonorrhea is not an example simpler than the man: for them, almost any contact with an infected partner is guaranteed to ends the transmission of the pathogen.

Another route of transmission of gonorrhea (or any sexually transmitted infection) is that it is transmitted from mother to fetus. And here I do not mean intrauterine infection and neonatal infection while passing them the birth canal of the mother. The most vulnerable in this case, the eyes of a child (still — open mucosa!). In contact with the gonococcus on the mucous membranes of the eyes develops specific conjunctivitis — gnobleniya, manifested by massive swelling of the eyelids, in which it is impossible to open the eye, and bleeding of the conjunctiva.

And the last possible way of transmission of gonorrhea household. It is possible if you use items General use (towels, bedding or underwear). The probability of this transmission is low due to the non-viability of gonorrhea in the external environment.

Symptoms of gonorrhea

The period from the moment of infection before occurrence of first signs gonorrhea can last from a couple days to weeks. But it happens that the incubation period is prolonged up to 3 weeks due to the manifestation of the “Amateur” in the prescription of antibiotics (often incorrect), low immunity.

In contact with the mucosa of the urethra (urethral) gonorrhea begin to multiply. Subsequently, penetrating the intercellular space, they are responsible for the development of a strong inflammation.

Like most diseases, gonorrhea is an acute and chronic. If it is very generic (no matter how corny — but everyone is different), the acute phase of gonorrhea lasts up to two months and then the disease “goes into hiding”, i.e. becomes chronic.

Given the anatomical and physiological characteristics of individuals of different genders, it makes sense to describe the symptoms separately for women and men.

Symptoms of gonorrhea in women
At first, major problems develop in the urethra, vagina and cervical canal. If the inflammatory process is localized in the urethra, it is manifested by itching, frequent and painful urination. If the vagina — we should expect a purulent discharge, pain, which intensified during sexual intercourse. Stand out from vagina pus in contact with vulva spreading and inflammation on them, that is called vulvitis.

The trouble is that symptoms of gonorrhea in women are smoothed, implicit. More than half of them feel nothing (or not attached). And the gonorrhea — insidious: during the acute phase, a period that can be characterized as “peace and grace”. All this leads to the chronicity of the process and further difficulties in the treatment. After all, if their inattention and carelessness to “drive” the disease is higher in the genital tract — the endometrium, fallopian tubes and ovaries — you can get problems with the implementation of its reproductive function (infertility, complications during pregnancy or ectopic pregnancy).

Symptoms of gonorrhea in men
The disease starts with the appearance of itching and burning, worse during urination. Inflamed foreskin and glans penis. When compression is squeezed out the last drop of pus.

Urination becomes more frequent and can result in droplets of blood. Often in the process of inflammation and delayed regional lymph nodes (in our case, inguinal).

If you let the disease take its course, the infection will spread further through the urethra, affecting the prostate gland, seminal vesicles and testicles. Difficult urination (frequent urge to it especially painful), increased body temperature, defecation occurs painful.

Diagnosis of gonorrhea

Gonorrhea is rarely diagnosed alone, usually carried out differential diagnostics of this disease with other urinary tract infections. Usually it looks like this: a patient comes in dermatovenerologic dispensary and deliver a swab from the urethra or from the vagina. In the case of prior oral or anal intercourse is scraping the mucous membranes of the pharynx or rectum. A necessary condition for the correct delivery of bioprobe is three hours from urinating. After taking the material it is painted with a special dye and examined under a microscope (microscopic method) or is sown on a nutrient medium (culture method).

For the sake of justice it is worth mentioning more advanced techniques: reaction of immune fluorescence (RIF), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). They are more demanding on equipment and personnel than the previous two methods are therefore used less frequently.

The treatment of gonorrhea

As with any infectious disease of a bacterial nature, gonorrhea is treated primarily with antibiotics. Should not make a diagnosis, as well as “assign” yourself an antibiotic alone. To determine the adequate antibiotic therapy must undergo a full examination with the delivery stroke, and if necessary, and ultrasound of the pelvic organs. Treatment should be subjected to (when possible) both sexual partner. During treatment excludes sex. At the end of the necessary control laboratory analysis. Only by its results it is possible to judge treatment success, and certainly not according to subjective feelings and lack of secretions.

And now, let’s talk about the drugs. To treat gonorrhea, antibiotics used fluoroquinolone (pefloxacin (abaktal), lomefloxacin, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin), a tetracycline (doxycycline or yunidoks), macrolides (vilprafen, Sumamed). In chronic gonorrhea shown immunomodulators (pirogenal, gonococcal vaccine inactivated), biogenic stimulators (aloe extract liquid).

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