The cough in children is a frequent phenomenon. Frequent, exhausting cough can make to lose self-control even for an experienced mother, not to mention the young parents of the only child.
Cough is called stronger than normal breath of air through the mouth. Coughing is a reflex response to irritation of the pharynx (nasal and oral parts), trachea and bronchial tree.
Cough occurs when effect on the mucous membrane of the respiratory organs of accumulations of mucus, pathogens (viruses, bacteria or fungi), their metabolic products (toxins), and allergic agents and alien bodies. the Meaning and the main objective of coughing is to clear the airway and to ensure the normal flow of air into the lungs. Therefore, the cough in children is a protective device of the body.
What is the cough
Divide the cough dry and productive, or wet. In the productive cough from the respiratory tract stands out phlegm. Not as a distinct disease, the cough is a sign (symptom) of many diseases.
A dry cough is accompanied by diseases such as SARS, whooping cough, pleurisy, bronchial asthma, incipient pneumonia, miliary tuberculosis. It is typical for viral diseases of the upper respiratory tract for allergic lesions.
Cough accompanies the majority of acute bronchitis, exacerbation of chronic obstructive bronchitis, bronchiectasis, pneumonia in stage of resolution, some forms of pulmonary tuberculosis.
In color, clarity and viscosity of sputum can be expected to judge the agent that caused the cough. For viral infections the usual translucent mucus with normal fluidity. Under the action of bacteria sputum yellow-green, viscous, difficult to separate, can have a smell of burning meat. From allergies of the respiratory tract moves, but with difficulty, transparent, so-called “glass” sputum. If the sputum is mushrooms, it becomes milky white with a splash of white flakes or crumbs.
Features of cough in children second-hand smoke depresses the cough reflex in the child.
Have infants in the neonatal period (1 month) the cough reflex is well developed in the case that it is not a premature baby and not a child with serious lesions of the Central nervous system. Subsequently, in the period from 2 to 4 months reflex has abated somewhat and becomes permanent to the severity with 6 months. Significantly inhibits cough reflex in children is the inhalation of tobacco smoke. That is, “passive Smoking” in children of all ages reduces the protective mechanisms of the respiratory system and increases the risk of diseases of the respiratory system.
With a wet cough children under 4 years are not otharkiwate and swallows the phlegm, which can lead to an incorrect assessment of the nature of the cough. Sputum toddlers to 5 years has high viscosity and worse departs than adults or older children.
In the dry cough, lack of air humidity may increase the cough reflex.
How to treat cough in a child
Since cough is not an independent disease, but a manifestation of many diseases, the question of whether treatment should be decided by the doctor. Better to disturb the pediatrician in uncomplicated cough than years to treat the child in respiratory centers from a serious disease which develops due to the neglect of coughing.
Non-drug methods to help the child to quickly deal with the cough:
- regular airing of the premises;
- the lack of tobacco smoke in the air that the child breathes;
- humidification of the air in the room;
- reupload on the tummy. to stimulate the cough reflex is drained from the nasal mucus;
- the oxygen is to feed the baby using a teaspoon (the right skills);
- vibration massage of the chest in children with cough;
- breathing exercises (the inflation of the balloon, blowing air by mouth into a tube) in children of more advanced age.
Of the dosage forms used in pediatric practice, preference is given to the drops, the syrups and the inhalation drugs used with a special device is a nebulizer. Often the treatment begins with inhalation of saline.
The main groups of medicines for treating cough in children.
I. Drugs to suppress dry cough.
- Central action: sinekod (butamirat) is the drug of choice for dry cough, glauvent (only in children older than 4 years).
- The combined funds.
- With the additional effect of improving the discharge of sputum: Codelac, kodterpin (2 years).
- With antipyretic effect: grippostad (from 6 years).
- With bronchodilator effect: redol (from 6 years). Not recommended for bronchial asthma and bedridden patients.
- With the improvement of liquefaction and expectoration: the pharmacy was (from one year), the taste (of the month).
- Antitussives peripheral actions: prenoxdiazine (libeksin) of 3 years, levodropropizine (leoprint) from 2 years.
II. Medications that improve the fluidity of sputum (mucolytics).
- Mucolytics direct action (destroy the substances that make up phlegm): acetylcysteine, fluimucil, Mucosolvan, impurity.
- Mucolytics indirect action.
- Bromhexine (bisolvon) of 3 years, Ambroxol (Mucosolvan, ambrogeksal, helical, Ambrobene, flamed).
- Pinene and terpenes: menthol, camphor, oil of fir, pine.
III. Medications that reduce the production of phlegm in the bronchi (also refer to mukolitiki indirect action).
- Beta2-agonists: salbutamol (ventolin) 2 years of age, terbutaline (bricanyl) of 3, salmeterol (serevent) of 4, formoterol (foradil) of 5, fenoterol (berotek) of 6.
- Xanthine: theophylline (tiopc).
- Anti-allergic: ketotifen from 3 years.
- The leukotriene receptor antagonists: montelukast (singulair) from 2 years, akalat (zafirlukast) from 7 years.
- Corticosteroids: prednisone, budesonide (pulmicort), beclomethasone, fluticasone.
Due to the fact that cough is a protective reflex, suppressing the uncontrolled it can lead to worsening of the underlying disease. It is rather a signal to parents that the child should be examined by a doctor.