The main causes of colic
At the time of the birth of a new person, his gastrointestinal tract is an uninhabited desert with sterile conditions superior to the advanced operating theater. The appearance on the light becomes for the baby the starting point from which useful and harmful microorganisms enter the acute competition for a lukewarm place in the intestine of the child.
Aggressive conditionally pathogenic flora (staphylococci, proteus, hemolyzing colibacillus, klebsiella) are usually inferior to nonpathogenic strains of enterobacteria, E. coli, bifidum and lactobacilli. The situation is aggravated in the case of artificial feeding, since the newborn does not receive immune bodies from the mother. Disease-causing microbes, the most formidable of which are golden staphylococci, colonize the intestines of a child.
In the case of abundant growth of microbes, the upper sections of the small intestine and the duodenum are affected, where microorganisms begin to decompose the enzymes necessary for normal digestion. Since the main food of an infant is milk containing milk sugar (lactose), the main enzyme necessary in digestion in the baby is lactase, which breaks down the milk sugar. Of course, there are situations when this enzyme is small initially, due to a congenital defect, but more often lactase is destroyed by harmful bacteria. Against this background, instead of physiological contamination of milk, fermentation develops with the formation of gases that inflate the intestines and cause pain.
The immaturity of the motor activity of the gastrointestinal tract in the child also contributes to the formation of colic. Uneven motility with areas of decreased and increased functional activity of the intestine leads to the accumulation of gases. Influences and immaturity of the central and autonomic nervous systems, as well as postnatal encephalopathy and intracranial hypertension.
Incorrect nipple seizure during breastfeeding is the reason for swallowing air during feeding. Air, moving along the gastrointestinal tract, forms bubbles, stretching the intestinal wall and provoking pain.
For artificial persons, air intake by mouth when sucking nipples is supplemented by ingesting air from the bottle and gas bubbles from the mixture.
How to determine colic. Symptoms of colic.
The intensity of pain in intestinal colic on a ten-point scale (from insignificant to intolerable) is estimated at 7-8 points, that is, it delivers the child torment. In response to pain, the child begins to worry: turn around, pinch with legs, pull them to the stomach, or even scream at all. A cry, monotonous in its color, when the child is not distracted by external stimuli, which occurs in half an hour, after the meal, indicates a colic. In cases of severe dysbacteriosis or lactase deficiency, colic may begin immediately after or even directly during a meal, when the child may refuse to suck. The separation of gases reduces pain.
Help with colic. Treatment of colic in newborns.
In order to help the child, there are non-medicinal and medicinal ways.
Non-medicamentous treatment Non-
medicinal means the normalization of the feeding process: regulation of the correct breast engorgement during feeding, feeding with the head of the baby raised at forty-five degrees, using small bottles and nipples with antireflux additional holes through which excess air flows. Before feeding the baby, it is necessary to lay out on the stomach, after feeding it should be worn in an upright position, until it overstrains the excess air. It is advisable several times a day to hold a baby stroking the stomach, stimulating the escape of gases and doing special gymnastics that normalizes the bowel motility.
Mom, breastfeeding, a diet with a restriction of whole milk, legumes, cabbage, yeast baked goods, grapes, nuts is prescribed.
When breastfeeding and confirmed by analysis of lactase deficiency, the child is given drugs containing lactase. Artificial animals are transferred to lactose-free or low-lactose adapted mixtures.
Gas pipes at home should not be put and, in general, this thing is rather useless and traumatic. Alcohol compresses – an extreme measure, when using which we must remember the ban on the use of alcohol-containing drugs in infants.
Drug treatment of colic is primarily aimed at eliminating the phenomena of dysbiosis. Actively advertised drugs to eliminate gas bubbles relieve symptoms of bowel swelling, reduce pain for a while, but do not treat the underlying causes of colic. Among drugs that change the surface tension of gas bubbles, simethicone-based products containing silica (espumizan, bebikalm, sub-simplex, gascon drop, dimethicone, meteospazmil, disflatil, zeolate, simicol, polysilane). These drugs refer to defoamers, destroy gas bubbles, make it difficult to form new ones and provide partial absorption of gases into the intestinal wall.
Use dill water, teas with fennel and planktex to facilitate the escape of gases.
Treatment of dysbacteriosis includes the appointment of bacteriophages, nitrofurans (enterofuril, nifuroxazide) to inhibit pathogenic microorganisms in the intestine followed by a prolonged intake of eubiotics (preparations containing bifidum and lactobacilli in various combinations).
The early appointment of eubiotics to newborns can prevent the colonization of the intestine by a pathogenic bacterial flora.
Auxiliary drugs that improve digestion are enzymes (mezim, creon).
It should be noted that colic is to some extent inherent in all infants. The task of adults, to help the child overcome a difficult period of maturation and adaptation of the digestive system.