One of the most feared diseases is cancer, which does not shy away from the sexual organs. Cervical dysplasia is a direct road to degeneration in malignancy, but the disease can be defeated in the early stages.
The content of the article
“Cervical dysplasia” what is it?
Cervical dysplasia what is it? The cervix is part of prodovolstvia and has a supravaginal part that is hidden in the pelvis and vaginal, which is visible when viewed in the mirrors. Inside the cervix the cervical canal is covered with columnar epithelium. This epithelium synthesizes mucus, protecting the uterus from the penetration of microbial agents. The vaginal portion of the cervix is lined by a stratified squamous epithelium consisting of several layers: basal (deep layer), intermediate, and functional (superficial layer).
Dysplasia of the cervix they say, when in its cells occur structural changes, such as hyperplasia, proliferation, impaired cell differentiation and rejection. All these changes are referred to as atypia, but the cells that form the lesion of dysplasia – atypical. Cervical dysplasia affects not only the functional layer of the epithelium, but penetrate into the deeper layers, it differs from cervical eversion or cervical erosion. That is why cervical dysplasia refers to precancerous processes.
The extent of the disease
Depending on how deep the spread of the pathological process, there are three degrees of the disease:
- 1 (mild) degree in the pathological process involved only the lower (basal layer) the third part of the epithelium;
- 2 degree (moderate) – abnormal cells are found in two thirds of the epithelium;
- Grade 3 or severe dysplasia – the disease process is distributed over the entire thickness of the epithelium, but vessels, muscles, not affect (severe dysplasia – this is a cancer, but (!) non-invasive).
Causes of cervical dysplasia
The main reason for the development of cervical dysplasia is the human papilloma virus, in particular cancer types (HPV-16 and HPV-18). But even when infected by these types of HPV dysplasia does not develop in all cases. First, the required long-term storage (about 1 – 1.5 years) of the virus in the body, and, secondly, certain preconditions must be met.
The factors predisposing the development of cervical dysplasia:
- early sexual life (16 years earlier);
- frequent change of sexual partners and the neglect of condoms;
- multiple births in history;
- sexual infections (gonorrhea, chlamydia, and others, they facilitate easy penetration of HPV in the cervix and the uterus);
- artificial termination of pregnancy surgical procedures in the uterus;
- genetic predisposition;
- active or passive Smoking (increases risk of development of dysplasia several times);
- cancer of the glans penis from a sexual partner;
- hypovitaminosis (A, C) lack of micronutrients;
- family history (presence of cancer in relatives);
- a bad conditions;
- diseases of the cervix (cervicitis, erosion, leukoplakia);
- hormonal imbalance (pregnancy, eligibility age, the hormonal contraception pill);
- weakened host defenses (HIV, stress, antibiotics, cytostatics).
What is dysplasia?
In General, cervical dysplasia behaves “approximately”, i.e. any subjective experience and the clinical manifestations are absent. Generally, women turn to the reception on the occasion of vaginitis or cervicitis, which is manifested by itching and burning in the vulva, unusual discharge (profuse, foul odor, green or yellow), discomfort during intimacy. Cervicitis or vaginitis due to the accession of secondary infection, which easily attacks already hit the cervix.
In severe dysplasia the possible contact of bleeding (after intercourse, pelvic exam or hygiene). Sometimes patient may present complaints of stiffness in the abdomen.
If the mild dysplasia is not detected early and treated, it pretty quickly turns into severe and cervical cancer. It is therefore important to have regular checkups by a gynecologist.
How to diagnose dysplasia?
Diagnosis of cervical dysplasia dysplasia is Suspected, the doctor may have during the examination of the cervix in the mirrors. While visually detectable change of the cervical mucosa (spots whitish color around the external OS, an uncharacteristic sheen of mucous, spotting when taking a smear from the surface of the cervix and cervical canal). To clarify or refute the diagnosis it is necessary to conduct further laboratory and instrumental examination:
- colposcopy (very effective method) allows you to examine the cervix under magnification and to identify abnormal areas more visible to the eye changes;
- fence smear of cervix and cervical canal for Cytology (performed annually in all women and allows you to identify atypical cells);
- a biopsy of the cervix – the detection of pathological changes at colposcopy excision cervical tissue with the most suspicious area;
- polymerase chain reaction – study of blood smears are lower for STDs, in particular HPV.
How to treat cervical dysplasia?
In case of detection of the disease is necessary as soon as possible to begin treatment. After research on the sexually transmitted infections, the patient is prescribed the appropriate antibiotic therapy. Identified abnormal areas in mandatory destruction. The only exceptions are some cases:
- young age (under 20 years);
- the absence of HPV in the body;
- dysplasia did not hit the cervical canal;
- pregnancy (after delivery but must).
Apply the following surgical methods for the treatment of dysplasia:
- destruction with liquid nitrogen;
- surgical diathermy;
- laser treatment;
- cervical conization or removal (amputation).