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What is birth trauma?
Birth trauma neonatal Birth trauma is a pathological condition that develops in a child during childbirth and is characterized by damage to tissues and organs, leading to disruption of their functions. Distinguish birth trauma hypoxic and mechanical Genesis. In addition, there are birth injuries of the soft tissues, skeletal system, Central and peripheral nervous system and internal injuries.
The fetus during passage through the birth canal is experiencing a colossal load on all organs and systems, in particular on the spine and the bones of the skull. To facilitate the birth of a child, nature has made the bones of the skull elastic, but at the same time, and dense, which are connected by fontanelles and sutures. In the process of passing through the birth canal the skull bone is shifted, and after the birth into place. If any adverse circumstances this process may be violated, which leads to birth injury of the skull and brain (they occupy the first place among all birth defects).
Factors predisposing to birth trauma
Factors responsible for the development of a birth injury can be as a fruit, and the parent, but does not exclude iatrogenic causes:
- large fetus (more than 4 kg);
- light weight baby (less than 3 kg);
- narrow pelvis;
- wrong position and fetal presentation (pelvic, foot, transverse, facial and parietal presentation, etc.);
- accelerated labor (2 hours or less);
- prolonged labor;
- stimulation of labor;
- cesarean section;
- obstetrical benefits (podalic version, manual Tsovjanovu and other);
- forceps, vacuum extraction;
- premature birth and post-term pregnancy;
- malformations of the fetus;
- suffocation by an umbilical cord, short umbilical cord;
- chronic intrauterine hypoxia of the fetus.
Clinical manifestations generic trawmadol soft tissue injuries
Generic tumor occurs as a result of swelling of the soft tissues predlagay part in the process of passing through the birth canal due to blood stasis and compression. Treatment generic tumor does not require and go away on their own after 1 – 2 days.
Cephalohematoma is bleeding under the periosteum of the flat bones of the skull. Cephalohematoma occurs as a result of displacement of the skin together with the periosteum, thus there is a rupture of the vessels at the time of passage of the baby through the birth canal. Dangerous cephalohematoma growing tumors that often require surgical intervention (puncture).
Often there is damage to the muscles, particularly the sternocleidomastoid. When injury to this muscle occurs either hemorrhage or tear of the muscle. On palpation determined dense or testovatoy consistency tumor of small size. The baby’s head, when the injury inclined towards the damage, while chin rejected the other way. Treatment consists of correction of the neck, massage.
Birth injuries of the bone tissue
Into birth traumas of the skeleton are cracked and broken. Most often there has been a fracture of the clavicle, which is diagnosed by swelling, pain (crying) and crepitate. Active movement from the broken collarbone hampered. Often there are fractures of the femur and humerus (no active or passive movement, tenderness and weakness of the limbs). Treatment consists of immobilization of the damaged area.
Birth injuries of the internal organs
Birth injuries of internal organs are rare pathologies are a result of the mechanical effects on the fetus (incorrect management of labour, the extrusion of the fetus bandages on Recruitment, etc.). Most often damages the liver, spleen and adrenal glands (result of bleeding). The first two days of birth injuries of the internal organs were not observed and the sharp deterioration in the coming 3 to 5 a day in the life of a child. While growing bleeding in the damaged organ, broken hematoma and develops hemorrhagic anemia. Treatment operative.
Birth injuries of the Central and peripheral nervous system
This is the most difficult and dangerous birth injuries. To damage the Central and peripheral nervous system include intracranial hemorrhage, injuries of the spinal cord and peripheral ganglia, the mechanical compression of the brain the bones of the skull. Among isolated intracranial hemorrhage subdural, subarachnoid, intra – and periventricular and vnutriposelkovyh. Intracranial hemorrhage alternating periods of excitation with periods of lethargy and oppression. During arousal, the child is restless, cries, convulsive breath, he observed convulsions and tremor of the limbs, insomnia and so on. The period of oppression is characterized by lethargy, weak cry, pale skin and sleepiness.