Aplastic anemia — a serious violation of hematopoiesis, manifested in the loss of the bone marrow’s ability to produce three main types of blood cells. In the first stage of the disease reduced the number of leukocytes and platelets, which could cause a variety of infections or bleeding. Then impaired production of erythrocytes, i.e. developing the condition, which, in fact, is called anemia.
The content of the article
Aplastic anemia can occur as the easy and the hard way. In the first case, the number of erythrocytes is reduced in low degree. It can be normalized, and can further be reduced by moving the disease into the category of heavy.
Aplastic anemia can be genetically determined, or may be acquired after birth. The hereditary form occurs three times less often than purchased.
Causes of aplastic anemia
Bone marrow biopsy in aplastic anemia. The brain contains less blood cells than a healthy person.Aplastic anemia refers to a little-studied diseases. At least half of the cases the cause of its development is unknown, so doctors do not like nothing more than to christen such an anemia rheumatoid. If the history of the patient with established aplastic anemia there is a number of factors, which can inhibit hematopoietic activity of the bone marrow, and that the use of certain medications (levomycetin, phenylbutazone, chlorpromazine), chemotherapy or radiological treatment of, poisoning by household or industrial chemicals (insecticides, products gasoline, glues), bacterial (tuberculosis) viral (mononucleosis, hepatitis) infection, the cause of the disease is just the same in these provoking factors. Children are more sensitive to these factors.
One of the most studied genetic form of aplastic anemia — Fanconi anemia is inherited when a defective gene is present in both parents, which is extremely rare (1 to 350 000).
The symptoms of aplastic anemia
Symptoms of aplastic anemia may vary within wide limits. Onset can be acute, rapid, not subject to outside influence. Still, a more common course of aplastic anemia — hidden, “guerrilla”, causing unwanted adaptation of the patient. Why undesirable? He turns to the doctor too late, when the suppression of the production of all three types of blood cells has reached its climax. Symptoms:
- all General features characteristic of anemia;
- hematoma, bleeding from uterus, nose, gums, festering injuries;
- happen ear infections, pneumonia or other inflammatory processes;
- systolic murmur when listening to the heart tones.
In aplastic anemia of unknown etiology, the spleen is not palpable, the rate of increase becomes noticeable after the transfusion the patient’s RBC mass.
For certain to predict the development and outcome of the disease is almost impossible: sometimes I’ll “burn” for a few weeks, sometimes the disease becomes chronic and is slow, sine, periodic worsening of the condition.
The symptoms of Fanconi anemia
In addition to the above symptoms should lead and the symptoms characteristic of Fanconi anemia: it is characterized by an abnormally small head and low weight of the newborn, absence or deformity of thumb, improper development of the bones of the forearm, white spots on the skin, strabismus, intellectual disabilities, deafness, underdeveloped sexual characteristics, disorders of renal structure.
Diagnosis of aplastic anemia
Simply conclude that the presence of a child with aplastic anemia may be a combination of two factors: frequent severe infections on the background of the decrease of white blood cells. In this case, be sure to refer the person to an in-depth study. Blood test shows low values of all three types of blood cells. The reason for this may be aplastic anemia, and leukemia, and malignant tumors, so the need for histological examination of the bone marrow.
To confirm hereditary anemia it is important to carefully and deeply study the pedigree of the patient for the presence of the genus in Fanconi anemia. In those genealogical branches where it was the place to be, often occur all the above deviations from normal development. Patient sent to x-ray examination: so you can confirm the defect structure of the kidneys, which is a symptom of Fanconi anemia. If signs of this anemia is not detected, the study does not end there: it is necessary to study chromosomes.
Treatment of aplastic anemia
In the treatment of aplastic anemia into three phases:
- the identification and elimination of adverse factors that caused the pathology of the blood (unless, of course, possible). Ie infection is cured using antibiotics, exposure to toxic agents — resolve, etc.;
- a blood transfusion;
- a bone marrow transplant.
For fast relief of aplastic anemia, the patient received transfusions of erythrocyte mass. In addition, using drugs that strengthen the vascular wall (dicynone, vitamin P, C), inhibitors of fibrinolysis (aminocaproic acid) and other means.
The greatest effect in the treatment of aplastic anemia is accomplished by a bone marrow transplant, and the success of the outcome depends on the efficiency of this therapeutic interventions after diagnosis. Often a transplant is the only way through which you can save the patient’s life. Otherwise, the disease may sooner or later return after an apparent recovery, and this time it could end much more pitiable.
The problem that you might encounter with transplantation — compatible transplant donor bone marrow with the patient’s body. As a donor typically use one of parents or another close relative. To prevent rejection of bone marrow leukocytes of the recipient, you need to suppress the immune system by chemotherapy. But there can appear another problem: after the suppression of the immune system should be much more thoroughly protect the patient from possible infections, by placing it in a sterile environment and giving sterile food. All this is possible only in large clinics equipped with the latest technology. This leads to high cost of treatment of aplastic anemia.
How to prevent aplastic anemia?
If we talk about the hereditary forms, it does. Only if the family already has a child with aplastic anaemia, and the couple wants to have another baby, in this case, parents should be sure to consult beforehand with the geneticist.
In the case of prevention of acquired aplastic anemia should protect the child from exposure to radiation, toxic substances and medications, can cause disease, and by not to tempt fate: then more will come.